error: implicit declaration of function ‘INIT_DELAYED_WORK_DEFERRABLE’

While working on the nightmare governor for the Xperia XA2 Ultra (sdm660), I ran into this error:

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_nightmare.c:714:3: error: implicit declaration of function ‘INIT_DELAYED_WORK_DEFERRABLE’ [-Werror,-Wimplicit-function-declaration]
INIT_DELAYED_WORK_DEFERRABLE(&this_nightmare_cpuinfo->work, do_nightmare_timer);
^
/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_nightmare.c:714:3: error: this function declaration is not a prototype [-Werror,-Wstrict-prototypes]
2 errors generated.

On that line, I saw this:

INIT_DELAYED_WORK_DEFERRABLE(&this_nightmare_cpuinfo->work, do_nightmare_timer);

So I did a little digging, and found a great Linux resource site: https://elixir.bootlin.com

What makes it so great, is you can search each version of the kernel (back to 2.6.11) up to the latest version, and search for any term in them. A quick perusal found this term was used up to the 2.6.39 kernel in the include/linux/workque.h file. It goes like this:

#define INIT_DELAYED_WORK(_work, _func)				\
	do {							\
		INIT_WORK(&(_work)->work, (_func));		\
		init_timer(&(_work)->timer);			\
	} while (0)

#define INIT_DELAYED_WORK_ONSTACK(_work, _func)			\
	do {							\
		INIT_WORK_ONSTACK(&(_work)->work, (_func));	\
		init_timer_on_stack(&(_work)->timer);		\
	} while (0)

#define INIT_DELAYED_WORK_DEFERRABLE(_work, _func)		\
	do {							\
		INIT_WORK(&(_work)->work, (_func));		\
		init_timer_deferrable(&(_work)->timer);		\
	} while (0)

But it was later changed to be like this in 4.4:

#define INIT_DELAYED_WORK(_work, _func)					\
	__INIT_DELAYED_WORK(_work, _func, 0)

#define INIT_DELAYED_WORK_ONSTACK(_work, _func)				\
	__INIT_DELAYED_WORK_ONSTACK(_work, _func, 0)

#define INIT_DEFERRABLE_WORK(_work, _func)				\
	__INIT_DELAYED_WORK(_work, _func, TIMER_DEFERRABLE)

#define INIT_DEFERRABLE_WORK_ONSTACK(_work, _func)			\
	__INIT_DELAYED_WORK_ONSTACK(_work, _func, TIMER_DEFERRABLE)

So, I edited the gov like by changing to the newer definition which seems to do the same thing:

INIT_DELAYED_WORK_ONSTACK(&this_nightmare_cpuinfo->work, do_nightmare_timer);

And, praise God! It even worked! I love it when you can find good, helpful resources out there. I know I’ve bookmarked elixir! I’ll be using that reference again!

Linux – keep it simple.

error: implicit declaration of function ‘cputime64_sub’ [-Werror,-Wimplicit-function-declaration]

You might be getting tired of these by now, but I really do use this website as my scratchpad, so I can jump back to something that I worked on before. I also hope that people who are searching for an error can find it here, possibly with an answer…. And today is no different. Another kernel compiling error….

Lately I’ve been going through the Xperia XA2 Ultra kernel (sdm660) and trying to add new features. Today I was adding in some governors, and several of them had the same underlying issues. Part of the problem was that I got the governors from a 3.10 kernel and put them into a 4.4 kernel, so understandably some things have changed.

This error popped up in a few of the governors that I was editing, here’s a few examples of the error code before the compiler would grind to a halt:

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_smartass.c:206:15: error: implicit declaration of function ‘cputime64_sub’ [-Werror,-Wimplicit-function-declaration]
delta_idle = cputime64_sub(now_idle, this_smartass->time_in_idle);

 

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_interactivex.c:141:29: error: implicit declaration of function ‘cputime64_sub’ [-Werror,-Wimplicit-function-declaration]
delta_idle = (unsigned int) cputime64_sub(now_idle, time_in_idle);

 

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_brazilianwax.c:217:22: error: implicit declaration of function ‘cputime64_sub’ [-Werror,-Wimplicit-function-declaration]
delta_idle = cputime64_sub(now_idle, this_brazilianwax->time_in_idle);

This was a bit odd. Inside of these governors, there were several adding and subtracting functions. This particular call wants to subtract the second item from the first item. Apparently, this function used to be hosted somewhere that these govs could draw from. So, since it was lacking, I added it in:

// WJH because it is not defined elsewhere
#ifndef cputime64_sub
#define cputime64_sub(__a, __b) ((__a) – (__b))
#endif

By adding the #ifndef tag, it will only add my local definition if it is not positively defined somewhere else first. This avoids any sort of conflict if the gov was later put into a kernel where it was defined for them. I like simple fixes!

Linux – keep it simple.

error: this function declaration is not a prototype [-Werror,-Wstrict-prototypes] MODULE_LICENSE(“GPL”);

Lately I’ve been going through the Xperia XA2 Ultra kernel (sdm660) and trying to add new features. Today I was adding in some governors, and several of them had the same underlying issues. Part of the problem was that I got the governors from a 3.10 kernel and put them into a 4.4 kernel, so understandably some things have changed.

So here is a funny one. Since I was updating a few governors for a newer kernel, one of the things that must have been previously declared somewhere was to include the “module.h” file that allows modules to have tags. These tags are benign, and are only for reference, since they just state text such as the version number or the license type or title of the module.

However, it will stop your compiler dead in it’s tracks if you run into this, just like it did for me. Here’s a few examples:

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_brazilianwax.c:826:16: error: this function declaration is not a prototype [-Werror,-Wstrict-prototypes]
MODULE_LICENSE (“GPL”);

 

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_smartass.c:751:15: error: this function declaration is not a prototype [-Werror,-Wstrict-prototypes]
MODULE_AUTHOR (“Erasmux”);

 

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_interactivex.c:768:15: error: this function declaration is not a prototype [-Werror,-Wstrict-prototypes]
MODULE_LICENSE(“GPL”);

It’s easy to fix, though, since all you have to do is include the modules.h file, like so:

#include <linux/module.h>

Just put it with the other includes at the beginning of the file, and you should be good to go.

Linux – keep it simple.

error: use of undeclared identifier ‘pm_idle’

Lately I’ve been going through the Xperia XA2 Ultra kernel (sdm660) and trying to add new features. Today I was adding in some governors, and several of them had the same underlying issues. Part of the problem was that I got the governors from a 3.10 kernel and put them into a 4.4 kernel, so understandably some things have changed.

Another error that I’ve had pop up numerous times is this whole “pm_idle” issue:

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_asswax.c:765:4: error: use of undeclared identifier ‘pm_idle’
pm_idle = pm_idle_old;

 

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_brazilianwax.c:712:39: error: use of undeclared identifier ‘pm_idle’
pm_idle_old = pm_idle;

 

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_smartass.c:602:18: error: use of undeclared identifier ‘pm_idle’
pm_idle_old = pm_idle;

 

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_smartass2.c error: use of undeclared identifier ‘pm_idle’
pm_idle_old = pm_idle;

It appears that somewhere in the older kernel, “pm_idle” was declared somewhere, but it no longer is declared in the newer 4.4 kernel. So, I just declared it in each governor by adding these lines at the beginning:

static void (*pm_idle)(void); // WJH

Now that it is declared (statically, so it stays here), it can be used in the formulas to calculate the needed values for adjusting the CPU frequencies. I’m honestly not sure that this was the best fix, but it certainly did work and now the compiling finished and the governors did function. At least, as far as I could tell….

Linux – keep it simple.

field designator ‘suspend’ does not refer to any field in type ‘struct early_suspend’

Lately I’ve been going through the Xperia XA2 Ultra kernel (sdm660) and trying to add new features. Today I was adding in some governors, and several of them had the same underlying issues. Part of the problem was that I got the governors from a 3.10 kernel and put them into a 4.4 kernel, so understandably some things have changed.

I received a series of errors while compiling, complaining about early suspend. Here are some examples:

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_smartass2.c: undefined reference to `register_early_suspend’

 

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_smartass.c:739: undefined reference to `register_early_suspend’

 

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_interactivex.c:641: undefined reference to `register_early_suspend’
/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_interactivex.c:670: undefined reference to `unregister_early_suspend’

 

field designator ‘suspend’ does not refer to any field in type ‘struct early_suspend’

All of these errors came after I had received an error about the compiler being unable to find linux/early_suspend.h. So I downloaded that file from the internet and put it in the include directory, only to realize that I needed the c file as well! Again, I downloaded the c file and put it in, only to find that the header and code file didn’t match. They were from different kernels and didn’t match up. Anyhow, once I found the most up to date version of the file, then I could actually use it! Here’s my commit if you want to check it out.

Either way, if you run into a similar message, make sure you have set “CONFIG_HAS_EARLYSUSPEND=Y” in your defconfig, or when you compile your kernel, it wont actually get turned on or built!

Linux – keep it simple.

cpufreq_interactivex.c:239:9: error: implicit declaration of function ‘strict_strtoul’ [-Werror,-Wimplicit-function-declaration]

Lately I’ve been going through the Xperia XA2 Ultra kernel (sdm660) and trying to add new features. Today I was adding in some governors, specific to this post, is the interactiveX governor.

That’s when I ran into this error:

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_interactivex.c:239:9: error: implicit declaration of function ‘strict_strtoul’ [-Werror,-Wimplicit-function-declaration]
return strict_strtoul(buf, 0, &min_sample_time);

It took me a while to find an answer for it, but once I did, I saw it over and over again as I added more govs to the kernel:

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_brazilianwax.c:406:15: error: implicit declaration of function ‘strict_strtoul’ [-Werror,-Wimplicit-function-declaration]
res = strict_strtoul(buf, 0, &input);

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_skywalker.c:723:5: error: implicit declaration of function ‘strict_strtoul’ [-Werror,-Wimplicit-function-declaration]
if(strict_strtoul(buf, 0, &inc_cpu_load)==-EINVAL) return -EINVAL;

 

/home/alaskalinuxuser/aokp_pie/kernel/sony/sdm660/drivers/cpufreq/cpufreq_smartass2.c: error: implicit declaration of function ‘strict_strtoul’ [-Werror,-Wimplicit-function-declaration]
if(strict_strtoul(buf, 0, &inc_cpu_load)==-EINVAL) return -EINVAL;

 

etc…..

With about half of the governors that I added, this error popped up, mainly because I was taking the govs from an older 3.10 kernel and trying to apply them to a 4.4 kernel. That’s a pretty big jump, and several parts of the code gave me interesting errors to hunt down, but this one was so simple to fix, just hard to find. I can’t take the credit, though, since I found this thread where a guy had a similar issue and fixed it.

According to Vasiliy Tolstov:

strict_strtoul() was just a redefinition of kstrtoul() for a long
time. From kernel version of 3.18, strict_strtoul() will not be
defined at all. A compile time kernel version check is needed to
decide which function or macro can be used for a specific version of
kernel.

Fortunately, the fix was pretty simple. Using gedit, I replaced every instance of “strict_strtoul” with “kstrtoul” in each of these governors. After that, the error not only went away, but the govs actually worked!

Linux – keep it simple.

Engineering Pie Build for the Sony Xperia XA2 Ultra!

So it’s been a rough start for me, stepping into the modern world with a modern phone that has a/b partitioning and was Android 8.0+. I’ve built dozens of roms for dozens of phones, some that were even unsupported, and to God be the glory, I was moderately successful, but these modern phones have been a different story. My first attempt with the Xperia XA2 Ultra ended up hard bricked. Then, I built a pie version of AOKP, which did boot, but would immediately crash after getting to the home screen.

Today, however, was off to a much better start. I successfully tested my engineering build of LineageOS 16.0 (pie) for my XA2 Ultra (discovery). Everything seems to work well, and you are welcome to try it out. Keep in mind, though, it is an engineering build as opposed to a user build. Also note that this is for the 50.1.x firmware variants.

Granted, a lineage build is already available, and most of the work was done by Luke. I like to compile a build on my own, though, to make sure my system is set up properly and that the source material does work before I get started on my own roms.

Now to get back to that AOKP build…. Or should I start on a Resurrection Remix build instead?

Linux – keep it simple.

Beginning AOKP Pie for the Xperia XA2 Ultra

I knew I couldn’t keep away from Android forever. It was only a matter of time before I jumped back into development. A lot has changed since my old rom building days. Back then everything was pre-treble, and there were no A/B partitions. That all changed for me with an Xperia XA2 Ultra.

It seems harder than I remember, and a lot more time intensive than it used to be. But, to kick things off, I started by building AOKP Pie for my new phone. To God be the glory, it does boot, but it doesn’t work right. Something is causing a pretty big hang up as soon as you are done with the setup. It locks up graphically once you get to the home screen for the first time.

Initial thoughts are perhaps tiles or menu item problems, but we will see.

Under the hood, though, everything is still running, even though the screen doesn’t update. If you use ADB, you can connect and do all the usual ADB command line stuff. But that doesn’t make for a very handy cell phone if you have to bring your computer everywhere so you can use it!

It’s also a bit harder as I had to switch to a nano sim card to be able to use the XA2. This is a problem because all of my other phones are not nano. It makes it difficult to switch to another phone while I test this out. Using a phone as your daily driver and for developing is a bit cumbersome and does slow me down quite a bit, but hopefully I’ll be able to work on it more later.

If you want to try out the “alpha” of my rom, you can download it on my MediaFire account. I will warn you, though, it doesn’t work very well.

Linux – keep it simple.

Fixing my bricked Sony Xperia XA2 Ultra

a

The photo above is not a mirrored image, it is actually two distinct Sony Xperia XA2 Ultra phones.

Whether it is fishing or phones, it all has to start with a story. Unlike fishing, though, this phone story really does start out as a big whopper! I guess I should back track to the beginning….

I was researching a new phone for Mom, and found that the Xperia XA2 Ultra is a really, really great phone. Sure, there are reviewers that were not enthusiastic, and some that were ecstatic, but I really felt that this would be a great phone for my mom. And I think it is. In fact, I liked it so much, that I picked up a slightly used one for myself. All was well.

Then, I decided to ditch the stock rom and start working on some custom stuff, as usual. The first thing I needed to do was test a current custom rom someone else made to make sure things work, and that I understand what’s going on under the hood. That is where things went horribly wrong.

I was following a guide on XDA. Several users had a similar guide, so I figure it must be right. Unfortunately, it not only didn’t work, but following the guide to a “T” bricked my phone. Here’s where I got hung up:

1. Download latest firmware with XperiFirm.
NOTE: When using mono XperiFirm will fail to unpack the firmware, you can do it manually using following commands:

Code:
for f in FILE_*; do unzip $f; done
unzip boot.zip -d boot

2. Go to the directory where the firmware got downloaded to and remove following files:
– kernel_X-FLASH-ALL-18AE_0x00.hash
– kernel_X-FLASH-ALL-18AE.sin
– persist_X-FLASH-ALL-18AE_0x00.hash
– persist_X-FLASH-ALL-18AE.sin
– system_other_X-FLASH-ALL-18AE_0x00.hash
– system_other_X-FLASH-ALL-18AE.sin
– system_other_X-FLASH-ALL-9B8D_0x00.hash
– system_X-FLASH-ALL-18AE_0x00.hash
– system_X-FLASH-ALL-18AE.sin
– system_X-FLASH-ALL-9B8D_0x00.hash
– userdata_X-FLASH-CUST-18AE.sin
– vendor_X-FLASH-ALL-18AE_0x00.hash
– vendor_X-FLASH-ALL-18AE.sin
– vendor_X-FLASH-ALL-9B8D_0x00.hash
3. Turn off your phone, hold vol dn and plug in the USB cable, the screen should be off and green LED lit.
4. Run Newflasher, it’ll flash entire FW to your current slot then unplug the USB cable and power on your phone.
5. Turn off your phone, hold vol up and plug in the USB cable, the screen should be off and blue LED lit.
6. Enter this command: `fastboot getvar current-slot`, it should return something like this:
current-slot: _b
Finished. Total time: 0.001s
7. Now switch to the opposite slot by entering command: `fastboot set_active a` if the current slot is `_b` or `fastboot set_active b` if its `_a`, you should see this:
Setting current slot to ‘a’…
OKAY [ 0.012s]
Finished. Total time: 0.014s
or
Setting current slot to ‘b’…
OKAY [ 0.012s]
Finished. Total time: 0.014s
8. Unplug usb cable and repeat steps: 3, 4
9. Profit?

At step 7, I was supposed to switch to the other slot. So I did, but when I unplugged the USB cable and repeat steps 3 and 4, it bricked the phone on the repeat of step 4. After that, it never booted up. All that happened when plugging it in or pressing any button combo was a triple blink of the green LED, and nothing else.

So, I made a post on the thread asking for help. But there was none to be found. Shortly after my post, others started posting as well. They all had the same issue. So, I take comfort in my misery loving company. Although I wish other’s phones had not also bricked, I was somewhat glad that I didn’t “mess up”, since several others following the instructions had the same results. What went wrong? I really don’t know.

The big question became, how do I fix it? I had about $100 invested in this useless paperweight, so I really wanted to turn a positive result. Thus enter ebay. I started bidding on phones with broken screens. I really just wanted to buy another main board, or motherboard for the phone, but I couldn’t find any suppliers. Eventually, I won a phone with a shattered screen.

The screen may have been shattered, but the phone still turned on and worked, so I simply disassembled the two phones (my brick and the one with the shattered screen) and swapped the main board! Now I had a working phone with the good screen, and I was back in business!

Next, I went about the process of installing Lineage 16 (pie) on the phone. According to the instructions, you have to update your phone to 50.1.A.13.123 to use this version of Lineage, but my phone was already 50.1.A.13.83, so I decided to try it as is, without updating the firmware. Praise God, it worked! So I was able to unlock the bootloader, boot TWRP, and flash LineageOS 16!

WARNING: This worked for me on software 50.1.A.13.83, but I don’t think it works if your software version is 50.2+! Try this at your own risk. I can’t promise that it won’t brick your phone.

Here’s what I did:

  • Went to Sony’s Unlock Bootloader section of their website and followed the specific instructions there to unlock the bootloader. You have to input your IMEI to generate a code that you use to unlock it in fastboot.
  • Downloaded TWRP for “discovery” (the nickname for XA2 Ultra).
  • Turned off my phone, held Volume up and plugged in the USB cable, which turned it on and put it in fastboot mode.
  • Typed fastboot boot ./twrp-3.2.3-0-discovery.img

fastboot boot ./twrp-3.2.3-0-discovery.img
downloading ‘boot.img’…
OKAY [ 1.431s]
booting…
OKAY [ 5.131s]
finished. total time: 6.562s

  • The phone rebooted into TWRP. I suggest making a backup at this point. I did, and copied it to my computer.
  • Download the latest LineageOS 16 (pie) rom for your XA2 Ultra. I used the 20190621 nightly, and it worked great for me.
  • Then, since I was ready to install LineageOS, select wipe, advanced, and wipe everything, then format data! Really important, if you don’t format data, you can’t boot lineageOS, as it will hang trying to unencrypt the data directory.
  • Still in TWRP, go to advanced, and select sideload.
  • On the computer, type:

adb sideload <name_of_lineage_zip.zip>

  • It will show a type of progress bar, and then will tell you when it is done. Don’t be alarmed if it “hangs” for a few minutes at the end, that was normal for me.
  • Reboot to system and enjoy LineageOS!

So, after a test run, I went back into TWRP, from fastboot, and flashed Magisk v19.3, and that worked great as well. I didn’t try Gapps, since I am actually going Gapp-less again. But that’s another post for another time….

Hopefully this was helpful for you. It was a lengthy process for me, and not optimal to say the least. If you do go this route, I will note that the Xperia XA2 ultra has been phenomenal for me. The battery life on Pie is incredible, the camera (that everyone loves or hates) is the best I’ve ever used, and I love it so far!

Linux – keep it simple.